Dollar Slips as Investors Assess Future Rate Path Amid Economic Uncertainty

The dollar has retreated from its recent 12-week high as market participants contemplate the future trajectory of US monetary policy. Following Federal Reserve Chair Jerome Powell’s speech at the Jackson Hole Economic Policy Symposium, investors are grappling with the possibility of additional interest rate hikes. Powell emphasized the need for caution in upcoming meetings, acknowledging both progress in alleviating price pressures and risks stemming from the unexpectedly strong US economy.

Although the dollar index, which measures the USD against six major currencies, has eased slightly to 104.05, it remains in proximity to its recent peak of 104.44, reflecting a gain of over 2 percent in August. This upward momentum signals a potential end to the currency’s two-month losing streak.

Market expectations currently show an 80 percent likelihood that the Federal Reserve will maintain its policy rate next month, as demonstrated by the CME FedWatch tool. However, the probability of a 25 basis point hike in November has increased to 48 percent from 33 percent a week earlier, indicating mounting speculation of a potential shift in interest rates.

While it appears unlikely that the Fed will raise rates in September, some analysts predict November could be a critical turning point, with incoming data potentially swaying interest rate expectations. As many other G10 central banks have already priced in a prolonged pause, the possibility of the Fed taking action in November has bolstered the dollar.

The recent release of robust US economic data has alleviated concerns of an impending recession. However, with inflation persistently exceeding the Fed’s 2 percent target, there are apprehensions that interest rates may remain elevated for a longer period. This uncertainty has prompted investors to closely monitor reports on payrolls, core inflation, and consumer spending, which will shape the Fed’s upcoming decisions.

In currency markets, the yen has weakened slightly to 146.46 per dollar, near its nine-month low of 146.64. Traders continue to monitor Japanese authorities for signs of possible intervention. At the same time, the euro and sterling have rebounded from their recent two-month lows. The Australian and New Zealand dollars, which experienced downward pressure due to concerns over China’s slow post-pandemic recovery, have shown some signs of recovery following China’s reduction of stamp duty on stock trading.


Q: What factors are causing uncertainty in the US monetary policy?
A: The uncertainty stems from Federal Reserve Chair Jerome Powell’s speech, where he suggested the possibility of further interest rate increases and emphasized the need for caution due to the US economy’s surprising strength.

Q: How has the dollar performed recently?
A: The dollar index has experienced gains of over 2 percent in August, reaching a 12-week high. It appears to be breaking its two-month losing streak.

Q: What are the market expectations regarding future interest rate decisions?
A: While the likelihood of the Federal Reserve keeping rates steady next month is high, there is increasing speculation of a 25 basis point hike in November.

Q: Why are investors closely monitoring upcoming economic data?
A: Investors are monitoring data on payrolls, core inflation, and consumer spending as these factors will heavily influence the Federal Reserve’s decisions regarding interest rates.

Q: How have other major currencies performed in relation to the dollar?
A: The yen has weakened against the dollar, while the euro, sterling, Australian dollar, and New Zealand dollar have all seen some recovery from recent lows.