Google has admitted that its plans to become more environmentally friendly are facing setbacks due to the role of artificial intelligence (AI) in its operations. In its 2023 Environmental Report, Google’s Senior Vice President of Learning and Sustainability, Ben Gomes, highlighted the difficulty in predicting the future energy usage and emissions resulting from AI compute in the company’s data centers. Despite this, Google remains committed to achieving its goal of net zero emissions and is focused on making AI computing more efficient while leveraging its positive environmental impact.
However, the report reveals a decline in Google’s consumption of carbon-free energy, dropping from 66 percent to 64 percent between 2021 and 2022. Additionally, the company’s scope 2 greenhouse gas emissions, which include power and heat purchases, increased by 37 percent during the same period.
Another alarming statistic is the company’s water consumption, which saw a 22 percent increase in 2022 compared to 2021. Google launched a water replenishment program in 2021 and aims to replenish 120 percent of the freshwater it consumes by 2030. However, as of 2022, it was only able to restore 6 percent of the water consumed.
Despite Google’s claim to consider local water stress when planning its facilities, it recently initiated a $1 billion datacenter project in water-stressed Arizona. Google acknowledges that its AI-first approach contributes to its significant energy and water consumption, with AI systems like ChatGPT and Bard requiring substantial water for cooling.
However, Google does utilize AI for sustainability projects, such as eco-friendly maps routing and Nest smart thermostats, which have helped reduce carbon emissions. Nevertheless, the company’s total operational emissions in 2021 and 2022 amounted to over 11 million and 10 million tons, respectively. To offset these emissions, Google relies on purchasing carbon credits and limiting scope 3 emissions.
While Google faces challenges in achieving its environmental goals, it remains committed and is actively exploring new technologies and partnerships to improve its efficiency and reduce its impact on the environment.